Carbon County is in south central Wyoming with Colorado to the south. The Fort Fred Steele Historic Site and the Saratoga Hot Springs are here. Carbon County also has a lot of natural gas production. Rawlins is the site of the Wyoming Territorial Penitentiary, which is now a designated historic site and museum.

Organized in 1868, parts of Carbon County south of the 42nd parallel were once part of the Republic of Texas (1835-1845) and then part of the State of Texas until Texas ceded its' northernmost portions to the Federal Government in 1852.

Carbon County contains 7,896 square miles of land and 68 square miles of water. The county seat is Rawlins.